The structural base for the roof usually made of plywood.
A strip of galvanized metal used to facilitate water runoff.
A watertight material installed directly onto the roof deck.
Ice & Water Barrier (‘Peel-N-Stick’ )
Self-adhesive waterproofing membrane used in protecting sensitive areas.
An intersection of two roof planes forming a peak.
The intersection of two sloping roofs joining at an angle to provide water runoff.
Roof Covering (Shingles, Metal, Tile, etc.)
The visual part of the roof that provides the majority of protection.
The surface, usually plywood or oriented strand board (OSB), to which roofing materials are applied. Also known as sheathing.
‘Tear-off’ is the first step in any re-roofing project. The old roof materials are removed, exposing the roof deck, and allowing our installers to inspect for rot and water damage. Building Code requires that any damage to the roof deck be repaired prior to the installation of new roof materials. When repairs are necessary, Pro Roofing installs materials that match the current type, size, and thickness of the current roof deck.
Types of Roof Deck:
There are three types of wood roof decks:
- Plywood or OSB Sheathing
- Tongue and Groove Board
- Plank Sheathing
Plywood / OSB Sheathing:
Homes built since the late ’70s are likely to have plywood or oriented strand board (OSB). Builders began using plywood because of its longevity and strength against splitting. In the late ’80s to early ’90s OSB became popular and is now used almost exclusively by builders. OSB is strong and durable but costs less than its plywood counterpart.
Repairs to plywood and OSB sheathing are required when the sheets are broken, water-damaged, or too thin to support the roof covering being applied. Pro Roofing charges for plywood or OSB sheathing repairs per 4-ft. by 8-ft. sheet installed. Material and labor costs are included in the per sheet rate.
Tounge and Groove Decking:
This is usually 2-in by 6-in boards with a ‘tongue’ formed on one edge that fits snugly into the ‘groove’ in the board adjacent to it. It is a challenge to replace this type of roof deck as it is not readily available at most lumberyards.
Tounge and Groove decking is very stout and durable. Repairs are only generally necessary when it has had extensive exposure to moisture. Pro Roofing charges for tongue and groove repairs per linear foot installed. Material and labor costs are included in the per linear foot rate.
Usually consisting of 1-in by 6-in or 1-in by 8-in board, plank sheathing was used as a roof deck before plywood. In the first half of the 20th Century, roofs built with wood shingles were installed over planks spaced about 1½” apart. Wood shingles are expensive so when these roofs need to be replaced, it is cheaper to resheath the entire roof and install asphalt shingles than to reroof with new wood shingles.
In accordance with the Florida Building Code – Existing Building Section 706.7, when a roof covering on an existing site-built single-family residential structure is removed and replaced, plywood and OSB decking must be renailed with 8d ring-shank nails spaced 6-in on-center (apart). Roofs with sawn lumber or wood planks up to 12-in wide must be fastened with two 8d nails to each roof framing member the plank crosses.
An L-shaped strip (usually metal) installed along roof edge to allow water to run off to drip clear of the deck, eaves, and siding.
Drip Edge Benefits:
Drip edge overhangs the sides of the roof and has a small metal flange that is bent away from the fascia to provide proper water runoff. It is non-corrosive, non-staining and available pre-finished in white, black and brown.
- Directs water away from the fascia and prevents water from rotting the fascia over time.
- Protects the edge of the deck from water penetration during driving rains.
- Seals any gaps at the bottom of the roof which could allow small animals to enter the attic.
- Prevents movement between fascia and deck boards.
- Extends the longevity of your roof and improves its overall effectiveness.
A sheet of water-resistant or waterproof material (often called tar paper) used as a secondary layer of protection for the roof deck.
Types of Underlayment:
There are three main types of roofing underlayment:
- Asphalt-Saturated Felt
- Non-Bitumen Synthetic Underlayment
- Rubberized Asphalt Underlayment
Asphalt-saturated felt and synthetic underlayment are water-resistant. Rubberized asphalt underlayment is waterproof.
Asphalt-saturated felt was the go-to roofing underlayment until about 15 years ago. That’s when synthetic products started gaining in popularity Commonly referred to as ‘felt paper‘ or ‘tar paper,‘ common roofing felt is made of varying blends of cellulose (natural plant fibers), polyester, bitumen, or asphalt. Felt paper is applied across the entire roof deck.
★ Atlas Gorilla Guard® 30
Gorilla Guard 30 is a high-performance engineered roof underlayment constructed to protect the roof from water. Designed for virtually any type of roof covering, this technologically advanced product far outperforms conventional felt roofing underlayment. Gorilla Guard 30 lays flatter and has significantly increased tear strength. Pro Roofing uses Atlas Gorilla Guard 30 as our standard underlayment product.
Non-Bitumen Synthetic Underlayment:
Synthetic underlayment is the preferred underlayment of most roofing professionals today. Synthetic underlayment is saturated in asphalt. The addition of fiberglass gives synthetic products superior tear resistance and stability. Synthetic underlayment is designed for application across the entire roof deck. It is sometimes used with waterproofing products.
★ Atlas Summit® 60
Summit 60 is a premium, lightweight, synthetic alternative to organic felt underlayment. This underlayment, manufactured from extremely strong woven polypropylene fabric, offers advance benefits not available with traditional felt underlayments. Summit 60 has higher temperature stability and offers far greater resistance to UV breakdown than felt. Pro Roofing offers Atlas Summit 60 as an upgrade underlayment product.
Rubberized asphalt contains higher percentages of asphalt and rubber polymers, making it waterproof. See Ice & Water Barrier tab for more information.
A sheet of waterproof material (often called peel-n-stick) used as a secondary layer of protection for the roof deck.
Various types of rubber-like materials are also used as roofing underlayment and are generally referred to as rubberized asphalt. These typically have adhesive on one side, which is protected by a peel-off backing, making them self-adhering. The rubber-like qualities of these underlayments make them self-sealing, meaning that they seal well around fasteners, such as staples and nails.
Ice and water barriers are manufactured to meet different requirements:
- They may have polyethylene or polyester bonded to the upper surface to provide a non-skid and weather-resistant quality.
- They may have a polymer film bonded to the weather surface to improve moisture resistance.
- They may be fiberglass-reinforced.
Rubberized asphalt underlayments may be formulated for use in high-temperature situations. Some underlayments are designed to resist heat up to 250°F without a breakdown of the adhesive.
★ Atlas WeatherMaster™ 200
The Atlas WeatherMaster Ice and Water is a self-adhesive underlayment that provides a secondary layer of waterproofing protection to prevent damage from ice and rain. Composed of a proprietary, SBS-modified asphalt, it provides excellent traction and protection from UV degradation and weathering. This Ice and Water barrier has high-temperature stability and can be used in new construction or in a re-roofing application that requires a complete tear-off. Atlas manufacturers this roofing underlayment to be self-adhering and it does not require any special adhesives, equipment, or heat for installation. Non-peel selvage edge. Use for valleys, eaves, flashings, hips, ridges, and rakes, and around dormers and skylights. Provides extra protection under any type of roofing: tile, wood shake, asphalt, slate, or metal
The uppermost peaks of two roof slopes facing opposite directions.
In the age where three-tab shingles were the standard in roofing, it was common practice to take the same shingle used to cover the roofing slopes, cut into 3 pieces and use it to protect hips and ridges. Today, laminate products are the shingles of choice. Specific shingles are manufactured for the hips and ridges. While it is still acceptable to use field shingles for hips and ridges, specialty cap shingles offer upgraded 130-MPH wind-resistance warranties. Pro Roofing always uses cap shingles for laminated shingle roofs.
The angle formed at the intersection of two sloping roof surfaces.
Types of Roof Valleys:
There are three common types of roof valleys:
- Cut Valley
- Open Valley
- Weaved Valley
A cut valley is one type of a closed valley that is covered over with shingles or other primary roof covering. Shingles are first installed on the lower adjoining roof slope through the valley line, followed by the shingle installation on the higher slope are then cut in a straight line through the valley. This ensures the water from the higher slope falls onto the shingles of the lower slope vs. under the shingles to the roof deck.
★ Done Right – Rain Tight Valleys
At Pro Roofing we install 98% of our roof projects with a ‘Cut Valley’. Actually one of the signature pieces of our roofing methods. We love the way it looks and believes it outperforms all the other roof valley installation methods. What you do not see is how it begins, we first put down a 3′ wide layer of waterproof Ice & Water Barrier (peel-n-stick rubberized membrane) in the valley. The sticky backing of this layer will literally melt and fully-adhere itself to the roof deck. We then fabricate galvanized metal flashing to fit tightly against the valley angles. Roofing cement is used to seal all edges and overlaps of the metal flashing. Shingles are installed onto the lower slope roof section first, another layer of roofing cement is applied to the center of the valley before shingles are installed on the opposing roof section and cut straight. We believe this smooth cut line aid in faster watershed out of the valley. Pro Roofing’s valley installation method offers Five Layers of Protection in this vulnerable area and is rarely seen by our competitors.
Open valleys are so defined because the valley line remains uncovered by the primary roof covering. Open valleys are protected by a combination of ice and water shield and metal flashing. This is the most expensive way to roof in a valley. Mostly due to the cost of the metal and the labor involved in the custom fabrication and installation of the metal itself. An open valley is often seen more in higher priced residential homes and even using copper flashing which adds to the bottom line. It looks very rich and nice but comes with a price tag that is usually declined in most applications.
Weaved valleys are where the shingles are woven and overlapped across the valley on alernating slopes. Seen from roofers that are more concerned with going fast rather than taking the time to ensure the problematic roofing valleys are installed correctly. Weaved valleys are commoning seen more in a three-tab roof installation. This type of valley is prone to cracking over time due to the extreme build up of shingle material trying to be forced into the small valley crease.
The most visual part of the whole roof system and makes up the majority of waterproofing and protection.
Types of Roofing:
There is a wide variety of roofing materials that are used as a primary roof covering. Some of the most common used in residential roofing are:
- Asphalt Shingles
- Roof Tile
- Modified Bitumen
The most common residential roofing material used in the United States is asphalt shingles because they are economical and easy to install. Asphalt shingles are available two types: traditional three-tab shingles and modern laminated shingles (commonly known as architectural shingles). With the intense sunlight of the Sunshine State and temperature extremes, shingles have a life expectancy of 15 to 20 years. To fight against the black marks caused by algae choose a shingle with algae-resistance which contains copper granules that can help prevent new growth.
Tile roofs are seen on homes throughout Florida that borrow elements from Spanish architecture. They add a lot of character, are resistant to fading and are fireproof. Roofing tiles are available in two types: ceramic and concrete. Quality roof tile should last 50 years or more. Tiles hang in parallel rows, overlapping to keep out rainwater. While they are durable, roof tiles are also fragile. High winds and walking on a tiled roof can cause damage to the tiles.
Metal roofing is increasing rapidly in popularity for its use on homes. Though a metal roof is more expensive initially, they can withstand harsher weather conditions better than any other type of roof material. Metal roofs have the highest wind resistance rating of any roofing material, do not absorb water or moisture, and will not crack and peel under the sun’s harmful rays. For Florida homeowners, metal roofing is an excellent investment.
Modified bitumen is the preferred material for low-slope residential applications. It is a rolled roofing material that is available in two types: SBS and APP. Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) increases the flexibility of the membrane and allow it to have stronger expansion and contraction abilities. Attactic polypropylene (APP) increases the aging ability of the roof system. SBS is often the more popular system. Modified bitumen roof systems can be installed with the common torch method or cold adhesives. A standard SBS modified bitumen roof system is a two-ply system applied in rolls that overlap the edge of the previous roll. Modified bitumen roofing systems are very durable, weather-resistant, and easy to repair.
The lower edge of a roof that often overhangs beyond the edge of the house.
The eaves consist of two main parts: soffits and fascia boards. The soffit goes beneath the overhand and lays parallel to the ground. The trim board that connects the soffit to the roof is called the fascia board. The eave is one part of the roof that is very vulnerable. For this reason, extra protection is built in at the eaves. Typically eaves will have metal drip edge, starter shingles, waterproofing membrane, and gutters installed here.